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  • 保安服务的制度化和法制化
  • 本站编辑:浙江500万彩票服务有限公司发布日期:2019-08-21 15:48 浏览次数:

保安服务是以向客户提供安全保障服务为目标的活动。20世纪90年代末,上海市开始试点成立专门的保安服务公司,为机关、单位提供社会化的保安服务,由此产生了保安服务如何制度化和法制化的问题。 

  虽然迄今为止,我国已经在市一级基本上都成立相关的保安服务机构,但是,保安服务在法律上到底是何种性质?保安服务公司应当如何设立和可以享有哪些法律权益?机关、单位和个人能够获得什么样的安全服务?保安服务质量能否按照《消费者权益保护法》等法律、法规的有关规定来予以监督?保安人员在提供保安服务时的权利和义务如何界定等等问题在法学界并没有引起足够的关注,在实践中也缺乏正式有效的法律、法规加以规范。 

  总体上来说,保安服务制度在我国是一项待建的制度。 

  北京市法学会近期委托中国社会科学院法学研究所莫纪宏研究员组织了保安服务的制度化与法制化重点课题的研究,记者就该课题研究的主要内容采访了课题组相关成员。 

  社科院法学所进修生王诗俊向记者介绍说,1984年12月,中国当代第一家企业性质的“保安服务公司”在深圳蛇口工业区诞生,1985年1月,全国政法工作会议总结了深圳首创保安服务公司的经验后,保安服务公司在全国各大中城市如雨后春笋般地发展起来,截至2003年底,我国已拥有一千八百多家保安服务公司,保安从业人员已逾73万人,1996年10月,中国保安协会正式加入亚洲保安协会,扩大了中国保安服务业的国际影响,标志着中国保安行业正式与世界接轨。 

  从全国其他城市和地区来看,社科院法学所聂秀时认为,由于我国目前在保安服务制度化、规范化方面还缺乏比较系统的法律规定,加上一些保安人员自身素质较低,引起了社会公众的一些不满,所以,当务之急就是要在理论上重视研究保安服务中出现的问题,在实践中通过完善立法来保障保安服务规范有序地向前发展。 

  法学所吕艳滨副研究员说,保安业是依法专门成立的企业或其他组织依法向社会提供专业化、有偿性的安全防护服务进而所形成的产业。其主体是各种非官方的企业或者其他组织,其在活动中并不行使国家权力,而其业务范围是为社会提供安全防护服务,在一定程度上起到补充警察机关职能的作用。

  为了促进我国保安业的健康发展,使其在辅助公安机关维护社会治安方面发挥更大作用,必须探索适时对其管理体制加以完善。 

  首先,要加强保安业管理的立法工作;其次,要按照市场规律管理保安业,彻底打破保安服务在行业和地域上的垄断;另外,我们有必要研究如何转变对保安服务企业的监管模式。 

  在其他国家和地区,保安服务企业属于完全独立自主的服务企业,国家对保安业的管理主要采取事前的许可和事后的监管方式。政府通过对设立企业和担任保安员设定严格的许可条件,确保只有能够胜任保安服务业的主体才能进入此行业,通过实施监督检查,制裁有关主体的违法行为,约束其依法行事;而且,在有关国家和地区,行业协会在行业管理和行业自律中发挥着巨大作用,我国也有必要结合政府职能转变和社团管理体制改革,加强保安业行业协会的发展,使其能够辅助管理机关在不干涉企业正常经营活动的同时,加强对企业行为的规制,培育其行业自律机制。 

  于敏研究员认为,保安行业的服务范围非常广泛,概括而言,是应他人的需求在各种公共场所、人车混杂拥挤的场所警戒和防止盗窃及人身事故的发生,防止运送中的现金及其他贵重物品丢失,防止看护或运输中的危险品造成人身及财产损害等等。在向服务对象提供服务时,保安服务公司应与服务接受方就保安服务签订保安服务合同,应当对业务实施场所有清楚的了解,以妥当顺利地执行保安业务。保安业务的内容和特征,决定了其业务执行中民事责任的特点。 

  保安服务提供的是对服务对象安全利益的保护,因此,保安服务公司及保安员在实施保安服务时,应当特别注意严格执行保安服务规定,不得超越法律赋予的权限。在职务执行中,不得侵害他人的权利及自由,不得干涉任何个人或团体的正当活动。例如,不得干预罢工和集会活动。在超市发现偷盗商品的人可以将其移交公安机关,但不得伤害其人身。在使用电子监视器执行保安业务时应当严格按照规定选择安装位置,正确使用,以防造成对他人人格权的侵害等。 

  由于保安行业与其他行业不同的特殊之处,莫纪宏研究员认为应采取必要措施来加强保安制度的法制化。 

  1、实行保安服务公司与公安机关之间的脱钩。 

  虽然公安部的《关于保安服务公司规范管理的若干规定》中明确规定:公安机关与保安服务公司在经济上彻底脱钩,不得抽调、占用公司资产,不得以任何方式在公司报销或者提取费用,不得为公司提供任何形式的经济担保。但是,在实际中,保安服务公司中,特别是管理阶层的人员大多又是由公安机关的在职人员出任的。 

  这些公安机关的在职人员在保安服务公司中到底是在履行何种职能,如何能够不受公安机关的支配和影响,这些问题根本没有在实际中得到有效地解决。因为保安服务公司很难彻底摆脱“二公安”的形象。所以,要实行保安服务公司与其母体公安机关的真正脱钩,就应当通过出台保安服务公司的服务规范来规范保安服务公司的服务行为,防止保安服务公司在职责权限不清的情况下,事实上在代行公安机关维持社会治安的政府管理职能; 

  2、建立起严格的保安服务许可制度,通过立法的手段,设立严格的条件,允许符合条件的一般法律主体设立保安服务公司,以便于在法律规定的范围内,不同的保安服务公司之间能够有效地开展服务质量的竞争; 

  3、建立保安服务的行业标准体系,严格规范保安人员从事保安服务的行为,进一步明确客户的安全权益,理顺保安服务中当事人之间的权利和义务关系; 

  4、建立比较严格的保安人员上岗培训制度,严格保安人员上岗的资格认定制度,坚决打击黑保安或者是私人保安等现象; 

  5、在保安服务公司提供的社会性保安服务与机关、单位内部的保卫部门之间建立起有关社会治安的联防体系。 

  总的来说,保安服务对于建设和谐社会来说是一项不可忽视的制度建设工程。

Yu researcher thinks, security industry has a very wide range of service scope, generally, is the needs of others in various public places, people mixed car crowded places alert and prevent theft and personal injury, prevent loss of cash and other valuables in transport, prevent care or personal and property damage caused by transportation of dangerous goods, etc. When providing services to service objects, the security service company shall sign a security service contract with the service recipient for the security services, and shall have a clear understanding of the business implementation place to properly and smoothly implement the security services. The content and characteristics of security service determine the characteristics of civil liability in its operation.

The security service provides the protection of the security interests of the service objects. Therefore, the security service companies and security guards should pay special attention to strictly implement the security service requirements and not exceed the authority granted by law when implementing the security service. They shall not infringe upon the rights and freedoms of others or interfere in the legitimate activities of any individual or group in the performance of their duties. For example, strikes and assemblies should not be interfered with. A person who is found stealing goods in a supermarket may hand them over to a public security organ, but may not harm his person. When using electronic monitors to carry out security business, the installation location should be selected in strict accordance with the provisions, and the correct use should be in case of infringement on the personal rights of others.

Because the security industry is different from other industries, researcher mo jihong believes that necessary measures should be taken to strengthen the legalization of the security system.

1. Delink security service companies from public security organs.

Although several regulations on the standard management of security service companies issued by the ministry of public security clearly stipulate that the public security organs are completely economically separated from the security service companies, they shall not withdraw or occupy the company's assets, reimburse or withdraw expenses in any way, or provide any form of economic guarantee for the company. However, in practice, most of the security service company's personnel, especially those in the management level, are appointed by the public security organs.

What kind of functions are the in-service personnel of these public security organs performing in the security service companies, and how to avoid the domination and influence of the public security organs, these problems have not been effectively solved in practice. Because it is difficult for security service companies to completely shake off the image of "second public security". So, to implement security service companies rather than the real decoupling matrix of the public security organ, it shall be by a security service to the company's service specification standard security services company service behavior, prevent security services company in the case of unclear responsibility permissions, in fact in the designated by public security organs to maintain social order of the government management function;

2. A strict security service licensing system shall be established. Through legislative means, strict conditions shall be set up to allow eligible general legal subjects to set up security service companies, so as to effectively conduct service quality competition among different security service companies within the scope stipulated by law;

3. Establish the industry standard system of security service, strictly regulate the behavior of security personnel engaged in security service, further clarify the security rights and interests of customers, and straighten out the rights and obligations between the parties in security service;

4. Establish a strict training system for security personnel and a strict qualification system for security personnel, and resolutely crack down on the phenomenon of black security guards or private security guards;

5. Establish a joint defense system for public security between the social security services provided by the security service company and the internal security departments of the government organs and units.

Generally speaking, security service is an important system construction project for building a harmonious society.